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RO-Crate: A directory structure that contains a dataset, which is described in an RO-Crate Metadata File.

RO-Crate Root: The top-level directory of the RO-Crate, indicated by the presence of the RO-Crate Metadata File ro-crate-metadata.json (or ro-crate-metadata.jsonld for crates that comply with versions before v1.1 of this specification)

RO-Crate Metadata File: A JSON-LD file stored as ro-crate-metadata.json in the RO-Crate Root. The metadata file describes the RO-Crate with structured data in form of RO-Crate JSON-LD. (In version 1.0 this file was named ro-crate-metadata.jsonld but has been renamed to improve the usability of crates.)

RO-Crate Website: Human-readable HTML pages which describe the RO-Crate (i.e. the Root Data Entity, its Data Entities and Context Entities), with a home-page at ro-crate-preview.html (any additional files reside in ro-crate-preview_files/)

Entity: An identified object, which have a given type and may be described using a set of properties.

Type: A classification of objects or their descriptions. The type (or class) is identified by a URI, mapped to a key by JSON-LD.

Property: A relationship from one entity to another entity, or to a value. The type of relationship is identified by a URI, mapped to a key by JSON-LD.

Data Entity: A JSON-LD representation, in the RO-Crate Metadata File, of a directory, file or other resource contained or described by the RO-Crate.

Root Data Entity: A Data Entity of type Dataset, representing the RO-Crate as a whole.

RO-Crate Metadata File Descriptor: A Contextual Entity of type CreativeWork, which describes the RO-Crate Metadata File and links it to the Root Data Entity.

JSON-LD: A JSON-based file format for storing Linked Data. This document assumes JSON-LD 1.0. JSON-LD use a context to map from JSON keys to URIs.

JSON: The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data Interchange Format as defined by RFC 7159; a structured text file format that can be programmatically consumed and generated in a wide range of programming languages. The main JSON structures are objects ({}) indexed by keys, sequential arrays ([]) and literal values ("").

Contextual Entity: A JSON-LD representation of an entity associated with a Data Entity, needed to adequately describe that Data Entity. For example, a Person, Organization (including research projects), item of equipment (IndividualProduct), license or any other thing or event that forms part of the metadata for a Data Entity or supporting information.

Linked Data: A data structure where properties, types and resources are identified with URIs, which if retrieved over the Web, further describe or provide the identified property/type/resource.

URI: A Uniform Resource Identifier as defined in RFC 3986, for example - commonly known as URL. In this document the term URI includes IRI, which also permit international Unicode characters.

URI Path: The relative path element of an URI as defined in RFC3986 section 3.3, e.g. path/file.html

RO-Crate JSON-LD Context: A JSON-LD context that provides Linked Data mapping for RO-Crate metadata to vocabularies like

RO-Crate JSON-LD: JSON-LD structure using the RO-Crate JSON-LD Context and containing RO-Crate metadata, written as if flattened and then compacted according to the rules in JSON-LD 1.0. The RO-Crate JSON-LD for an RO-Crate is stored in the RO-Crate Metadata File.

Linked Data conventions

Throughout this specification, RDF terms (properties, types) are referred to using the keys defined in the RO-Crate JSON-LD Context.

Following practice, property names start with lowercase letters and Type names start with uppercase letters.

In the RO-Crate Metadata File the RDF terms use their RO-Crate JSON-LD names as defined in the RO-Crate JSON-LD Context, which is available at