From Wikipedia: ORCID (Open Researcher and Contributor ID) is a nonproprietary alphanumeric code to uniquely identify scientific and other academic authors. This addresses the problem that a particular author’s contributions to the scientific literature can be hard to electronically recognize as most personal names are not unique, they can change (such as with marriage), have cultural differences in name order, contain inconsistent use of first-name abbreviations and employ different writing systems. It provides a persistent identity for humans, similar to that created for content-related entities on digital networks by digital object identifiers (DOIs). The ORCID organization offers an open and independent registry intended to be the de facto standard for author identification in science and related academic publishing. On 16 October 2012, ORCID launched its registry services and started issuing user identifiers.